Examination of synthetic retinoid-induced apoptosis in cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas: Mechanisms and implications for chemoprevention and chemotherapy with retinoids
Non-melanoma skin cancers, including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), are the most common neoplasms in the United States with a lifetime risk nearly equal to all other types of cancer combined. Retinoids are naturally occurring and synthetic analogues of vitamin A that bind to nuclear retinoid receptors and modulate gene expression as a means of regulating cell proliferation and differentiation. Retinoids have been employed for many years in the treatment of various cutaneous lesions and for cancer chemoprevention and therapy. The primary drawback limiting the use of retinoids is their toxicity, which is also associated with receptor-gene interactions. In this study, the effects of the synthetic retinoids N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4HPR) and 6-[3-(1-adamantyl)-4-hydroxyphenyl]-2-naphthalene carboxylic acid (CD437) were examined in cutaneous keratinocytes. Four human cutaneous SCC cell lines were examined along with normal human epidermal keratinocyte (NHEK) cells from two donors. Sensitivity to 4HPR or CD437 alone or in combination with other agents was determined via growth inhibition, cell cycle distributions, or apoptosis induction. Both synthetic retinoids were able to promote apoptosis in SCC cells more effectively than the natural retinoid all-trans retinoic acid. Apoptosis could not be inhibited by nuclear retinoic acid receptor antagonists. In NHEK cells, 4HPR induced apoptosis while CD437 promoted G1 arrest. 4HPR acted as a prooxidant by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) in SCC and NHEK cells. 4HPR-induced apoptosis in SCC cells could be inhibited or potentiated by manipulating cellular defenses against oxidative stress, indicating an essential role for ROS in 4HPR-induced apoptosis. CD437 promoted apoptosis in SCC cells in S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle within two hours of treatment, and this rapid induction could not be blocked with cycloheximide. This study shows: (1) 4HPR- and CD437-induced apoptosis do not directly involve a traditional retinoid pathway; (2) 4HPR can act as a prooxidant as a means of promoting apoptosis; (3) CD437 induces apoptosis in SCC cells independent of protein synthesis and is potentially less toxic to NHEK cells; and (4) 4HPR and CD437 operate under different mechanisms with respect to apoptosis induction and this may potentially enhance their therapeutic index in vivo.
Hail, Numsen Moore, "Examination of synthetic retinoid-induced apoptosis in cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas: Mechanisms and implications for chemoprevention and chemotherapy with retinoids" (1998). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI9927544.