Immunology and HIV expression in skin, in vitro, and in response to ultraviolet light
HIV can enter the body through Langerhans cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages in skin mucosa, and spreads by lysis or by syncytia. Since UVL induces of HIV-LTR in transgenic mice mid in cell lines in vitro, we hypothesized that UVB may affect HIV in people and may affect HIV in T cells in relation to dose, apoptosis, and cytokine expression. To determine whether HIV is induced by UVL in humans, a clinical study of HIV+ patients with psoriasis or pruritus was conducted during six weeks of UVB phototherapy, Controls were HIV-psoriasis patients receiving UVB and HIV+ KS subjects without UVB.Blood and skin biopsy specimens were collected at baseline, weeks 2 and 6, and 4 weeks after UVL. AIDS-related skin diseases showed unique cytokine profiles in skin and serum at baseline. In patients and controls on phototherapy, we observed the following: (1) CD4+ and CD8+ T cell numbers are not significantly altered during phototherapy, (2) p24 antigen levels, and also HIV plasma levels increase in patients not on antiviral therapy, (3) HIV-RNA levels in serum or plasma. (viral load) can either increase or decrease depending on the patient's initial viral load, presence of antivirals, and skin type, (4) HIV-RNA levels in the periphery are inversely correlated to serum IL-10 and (5) HIV+ cell in skin increase after UVL at 2 weeks by RT-PCR in situ hybridization mid we negatively correlated with peripheral load. To understand the mechanisms of UVB mediated HIV transcription, we treated Jurkat T cell lines stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-luciferase plasmid only or additionally with tat-SV-40 early promoter with UVB (2 J/m2 to 200 J/m2), 50 to 200 ng/ml rhIL-10, and 10 μg/ml PHA as control. HIV promoter activity was measured by luciferase normalized to protein. Time points up to 72 hours were analyzed for HIV-LTR activation. HIV-LTR activation had the following properties: (1) requires the presence of Tat, (2) occurs at 24 hours, and (3) is UVB dose dependent. Changes in viability by MTS (3-(4,5-dimethyhhiazol-2-y1)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphonyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium) mixed with PMS (phenazine methosulfate) solution and apoptosis by propidium iodide and annexin V using flow cytometry (FC) were seen in irradiated Jurkat cells. We determined that (1) rhIL-10 moderately decreased HIV-LTR activation if given before radiation and greatly decreases it when given after UVB, (2) HIV-LTR activation was low at doses of greater than 70 J/m2, compared to activation at 50 J/m2. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
Breuer-McHam, Joan Nancy, "Immunology and HIV expression in skin, in vitro, and in response to ultraviolet light" (1999). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI9929371.