Rapid effects of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) on osteoblasts: Studies of membrane transducers that affect calcium signals
1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D 3] exerts pleiotropic effects on osteoblasts via both long-term nuclear receptor-mediated and rapid membrane-initiated pathways during bone remodeling and mineral homeostasis. This study explored the membrane transducers that mediate rapid effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on osteoblasts, including sphingomyelinase (SMase) and L-type voltage sensitive calcium channels (VSCCs). It was previously demonstrated that 1,25(OH)2D3 stimulates transmembrane influx of Ca2+ through VSCCs in ROS 17/2.8 osteoblasts, however the molecular identity of 1,25(OH)2D 3-regulated VSCC has not been known. In this study, on the basis of in vitro tests of three unique ribozymes specifically cleaving [special characters omitted] mRNA, I transfected ROS 17/2.8 cells with vectors coding recombinant ribozyme modified with U1 snRNA structure, and successfully selected stable clonal cells in which the expression of [special characters omitted] was strikingly reduced. Ca2+ influx studies in these cells compared to control transfectants showed selective attenuation of depolarization- and 1,25(OH)2D3-regulated Ca2+ responses. These results allow us to conclude that the cardiac ([special characters omitted]) subtype of the L-type VSCC is the major membrane transducer of Ca 2+ influx in osteoblasts. I also demonstrated that 1,25(OH)2D3 induces a rapid hydrolysis of membrane sphingomyelin (SM) in ROS 17/2.8 cells, with the concomitant generation of ceramide, detectable at 15 minute, and maximal at 1 hour after addition. Sphingosine, sphingosine-1-phosphate (SPP) and sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC), downstream products of SM hydrolysis, but not ceramide, elicit Ca 2+ release from intracellular stores. Considering ceramide, sphingosine, and SPP as second messengers modulating intracellular kinases or phosphatases, these findings implicate sphingolipid-signaling pathways in transducing rapid effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on osteoblasts. In structure/function analyses of sphingolipid signaling, it was observed that psychosine elicits Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. This challenges the dogma that sphingosine phosphorylation permits mobilization of Ca2+ , because psychosine is a sphingosine analog galactosylated at 1-carbon, preventing phosphorylation at that site. Psychosine is the pathological metabolite found in patients with Krabbe's disease, suggesting that psychosine disrupts the physiological sphingolipid signaling by chronic release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Slower SM turnover than Ca2+ influx through VSCCs in response to 1,25(OH)2D3 demonstrates ceramide does not mediate the 1,25(OH)2D3-induced Ca2+ signaling, a conclusion endorsed further by the failure of ceramide to induce Ca 2+ signaling.
Liu, Riting (Allan), "Rapid effects of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) on osteoblasts: Studies of membrane transducers that affect calcium signals" (1999). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI9929386.