Source of health insurance and immunization rates: Findings from the 1996 Texas immunization survey

Robert Fulda, The University of Texas School of Public Health


This study was a further investigation of the 1996 Texas Immunization Survey conducted by the Associateship for Disease Control and Prevention of the Texas Department of Health. The 1996 survey was conducted through 4,599 completed telephone interviews of families with a child between the ages of 3–35 months concerning the immunization status of Texas children. The present study determined differences in immunization rates for children aged 3–35 months for the last shot in the immunization series that should be completed before 2 years of age, a total of four shots, both overall and for different health insurance groups. Life tables were used to determine the percentage and distribution over time of completed vaccination rates for each shot. Emphasis was placed on the proportion of children that were immunized at the end of the recommended range of the immunization schedule, and at 2 years of age. Univariate and multivariate analysis was also performed in order to ascertain which risk factors predict whether or not a child will be immunized. RESULTS: Between 80–90% were immunized for the last shot of Hepatitis B; Measles, Mumps, and Rubella; and Polio at 2 years of age. Approximately 2/3 of the sample was immunized for Diphtheria, Pertussis, and Tetanus. Most of the children were immunized by the end of the recommended range of the immunization schedule except for Measles, Mumps, and Rubella. Children of parents with private indemnity insurance were significantly more likely to have received two of the four shots; children of uninsured parents were significantly less likely to have received three of the four shots. In multivariate analysis, maternal education was the only variable that consistently predicted immunization status for the different shots. Results indicate that a substantial gap exists for immunization rates between children with private insurance and uninsured children, despite recent policy changes to provide immunizations free of charge. Health care providers should pay extra attention to the poor and uninsured to make sure that all children receive timely immunizations.

Subject Area

Public health|Health care

Recommended Citation

Fulda, Robert, "Source of health insurance and immunization rates: Findings from the 1996 Texas immunization survey" (1999). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI9929460.