NMR structural analysis of cardiac troponin C: Monitoring conformational changes induced by binding calcium, troponin I, and calcium -sensitizing drugs
Contraction of cardiac muscle is regulated through the Ca2+ dependent protein-protein interactions of the troponin complex (Tn). The critical role cardiac troponin C (cTnC) plays as the Ca2+ receptor in this complex makes it an attractive target for positive inotropic compounds. In this study, the ten Met methyl groups in cTnC, [98% 13C ϵ]-Met cTnC, are used as structural markers to monitor conformational changes in cTnC and identify sites of interaction between cTnC and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) responsible for the Ca2+ dependent interactions. In addition the structural consequences that a number of Ca2+-sensitizing compounds have on free cTnC and the cTnC·cTnI complex were characterized. Using heteronuclear NMR experiments and monitoring chemical shift changes in the ten Met methyl 1H-13C correlations in 3Ca2+ cTnC when bound to cTnI revealed an anti-parallel arrangement for the two proteins such that the N-domain of cTnI interacts with the C-domain of cTnC. The large chemical shifts in Mets-81, -120, and -157 identified points of contact between the proteins that include the C-domain hydrophobic surface in cTnC and the A, B, and D helical interface located in the regulatory N-domain of cTnC. TnI association [cTnI(33–80), cTnI(86–211), or cTnI(33–211)] was found also to dramatically reduce flexibility in the D/E central linker of cTnC as monitored by line broadening in the Met 1H- 13C correlations of cTnC induced by a nitroxide spin label, MTSSL, covalently attached to cTnC at Cys 84. TnI association resulted in an extended cTnC that is unlike the compact structure observed for free cTnC. The Met 1H-13C correlations also allowed the binding characteristics of bepridil, TFP, levosimendan, and EMD 57033 to the apo, 2Ca2+, and Ca2+ saturated forms of cTnC to be determined. In addition, the location of drug binding on the 3Ca2+cTnC·cTnI complex was identified for bepridil and TFP. Use of a novel spin-labeled phenothiazine, and detection of isotope filtered NOEs, allowed identification of drug binding sites in the shallow hydrophobic cup in the C-terminal domain, and on two hydrophobic surfaces on N-regulatory domain in free 3Ca2+ cTnC. In contrast, only one N-domain drug binding site exists in 3Ca2+ cTnC·cTnI complex. The methyl groups of Met 45, 60 and 80, which are grouped in a hydrophobic patch near site II in cTnC, showed the greatest change upon titration with bepridil or TFP, suggesting that this is a critical site of drug binding in both free cTnC and when associated with cTnI. The strongest NOEs were seen for Met-60 and -80, which are located on helices C and D, respectively, of Ca2+ binding site II. These results support the conclusion that the small hydrophobic patch which includes Met-45, -60, and -80 constitutes a drug binding site, and that binding drugs to this site will lead to an increase in Ca2+ binding affinity of site II while preserving maximal cTnC activity. Thus, the subregion in cTnC makes a likely target against which to design new and selective Ca2+-sensitizing compounds. ^
Health Sciences, Pharmacology|Chemistry, Biochemistry|Biophysics, General
Kleerekoper, Quinn Koos, "NMR structural analysis of cardiac troponin C: Monitoring conformational changes induced by binding calcium, troponin I, and calcium -sensitizing drugs" (1999). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI9942091.