A novel mechanism of regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3 -kinase: Tyrosine phosphorylation of p85 residue 688
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) phosphorylates membrane constituent phosphatidylinositols, producing second messengers that link membrane bound receptor signals to cellular proliferation and survival. PI3K, a heterodimer consisting of a catalytic p110 subunit and a regulatory p85 subunit, can be activated through induced association with other signaling molecules. The p85 subunit serves to both stabilize and inactivate p110. The inhibitory activity of P85 is relieved by occupancy of the N terminal SH2 domain by phosphorylated tyrosine. PI3K becomes phosphorylated and activated subsequent to a variety of stimuli. Indeed, Src family kinases have been demonstrated to phosphorylate p85 at tyrosine 688, but the role of phosphorylation in PI3K function is unclear. We decided to evaluate the importance of tyrosine phosphorylation to PI3K activity. We demonstrate that tyrosine phosphorylated p85 is associated with a higher specific activity than is non-phosphorylated PI3K. Wild type p85 inhibits PI3K enzyme activity, a process accentuated by mutation of tyrosine 688 to alanine and reversed by mutation to aspartate which functions as a phosphotyrosine mimic in multiple systems. Strikingly, the Y688D mutation completely reverses the p85 inhibitory activity on cell viability and activation of downstream protein NFkB. We demonstrate that tyrosine phosphorylated Y688 or Y688D is sufficient to bind the p85 N terminal SH2 domain, either within full length p85 or in an isolated N terminal SH2 domain, suggesting the possibility of an intramolecular interaction between phosphorylated Y688 and the p85 N terminal SH2 domain that can relieve the p85-induced inhibition of p110. Further, we provide evidence that dephosphorylation of Y688 reduces phosphorylation-induced PI3K activity. We demonstrate that tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 can physically associate with p85 in a SH2-mediated interaction with the C terminal tail of SHP-1. This association is concomitant with both p85 dephosphorylation and decreased PI3K activity. Altogether, our data suggests the phosphorylation state of p85 is the focal point of a novel mechanism for PI3K activity regulation. As PI3K has been shown to be involved in the vital physiological processes of cell proliferation and apoptosis, a thorough understanding of the regulation of this signaling protein may provide opportunities for the design of novel treatments for cancer.
Cuevas, Bruce Daniel, "A novel mechanism of regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3 -kinase: Tyrosine phosphorylation of p85 residue 688" (2000). Texas Medical Center Dissertations (via ProQuest). AAI9976288.