Publication Date



BJU international






OBJECTIVE: To review existing publications to determine the approaches for the medical and operative management of mammalian bites to the external genitalia.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis for Scoping Review guidelines were followed. Four databases were searched. Articles were independently screened and analysed by two reviewers. Publications were included if detailed summaries of genitalia bites and management were documented. Discrepancies were resolved by a third reviewer. Data were extracted from the final article cohort.

RESULTS: A total of 42 articles were included in this scoping review with 67 cases of mammalian bites to the genitalia reported in the cohort. The most common injury site was the penis (44.9%). Dog and human bites were the most common type of mammalian bites (61.2% and 26.9%, respectively). In all, 13.4% of cases were managed with medical therapy while 86.6% of cases required surgical intervention. The most common intervention was wound irrigation, debridement, and primary closure (32.8%). Although uncommon, other operative approaches included skin flaps (7.5%) and grafts (4.5%), re-implantation (4.5%), urethroplasty/repair (7.5%), penectomy (3.0%), scrotoplasty (3.0%), and perineal urethrostomy (1.5%). The reported complication rate was 19.4%. The mean follow-up time was 39.9 months.

CONCLUSION: Trauma related to mammalian bites is associated with high utilisation of healthcare resources and cost. Although management of such bites to the genitalia is controversial, surgical intervention is often warranted ranging from simple debridement of devitalised tissue to complex reconstructive surgery. This review underscores the need for further investigation of mammalian bites to the genitalia to improve surgical options and monitor for long-term complication rates.


Male, Dogs, Humans, Animals, Bites and Stings, Reconstructive Surgical Procedures, Penis, Skin Transplantation, Genitalia, Mammals

Published Open-Access




To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.