Translational behavioral medicine
Obesity is a pandemic that disproportionately affects children from vulnerable populations in the USA. Current treatment approaches in primary care settings in the USA have been reported to be insufficient at managing pediatric obesity, primarily due to implementation challenges for healthcare systems and barriers for families. While the literature has examined the efficacy of pediatric obesity interventions focused on internal validity, it lacks sufficient reporting and analysis of external validity necessary for successful translation to primary care settings. We conducted a systematic review of the primary-care-setting literature from January 2007 to March 2020 on family-based pediatric weight management interventions in both English and/or Spanish for children ages 6-12 years in the USA using the Reach, Efficacy/Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. A literature search, using PRISMA guidelines, was conducted in January 2022 using the following electronic databases: Medline Ovid, Embase, and Cochrane Library. 22 270 records were screened, and 376 articles were reviewed in full. 184 studies were included. The most commonly reported dimensions of the RE-AIM framework were Reach (65%), Efficacy/Effectiveness (64%), and Adoption (64%), while Implementation (47%) and Maintenance (42%) were less often reported. The prevalence of reporting RE-AIM construct indicators ranged greatly, from 1% to 100%. This systematic review underscores the need for more focus on external validity to guide the development, implementation, and dissemination of future pediatric obesity interventions based in primary care settings. It also suggests conducting additional research on sustainable financing for pediatric obesity interventions.