Publication Date

3-1-2023

Journal

The Texas Heart Institute Journal

DOI

10.14503/THIJ-22-7908

PMID

37011366

Publication Date(s)

March 2023

Language

English

PMCID

PMC10178652

PubMedCentral® Posted Date

4-5-2023

PubMedCentral® Full Text Version

Post Print

Published Open-Access

yes

Keywords

Humans, Heart Failure, Heart-Assist Devices, Hemodynamics

Abstract

Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are increasingly used to treat patients with end-stage heart failure. Implantable LVADs were initially developed in the 1960s and 1970s. Because of technological constraints, early LVADs had limited durability (eg, membrane or valve failure) and poor biocompatibility (eg, driveline infections and high rates of hemolysis caused by high shear rates). As the technology has improved over the past 50 years, contemporary rotary LVADs have become smaller, more durable, and less likely to result in infection. A better understanding of hemodynamics and end-organ perfusion also has driven research into the enhanced functionality of rotary LVADs. This paper reviews from a historical perspective some of the most influential axial-flow rotary blood pumps to date, from benchtop conception to clinical implementation. The history of mechanical circulatory support devices includes improvements related to the mechanical, anatomical, and physiologic aspects of these devices. In addition, areas for further improvement are discussed, as are important future directions-such as the development of miniature and partial-support LVADs, which are less invasive because of their compact size. The ongoing development and optimization of these pumps may increase long-term LVAD use and promote early intervention in the treatment of patients with heart failure.

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