Publication Date



The Texas Heart Journal





Publication Date(s)

April 2016





PubMedCentral® Posted Date


PubMedCentral® Full Text Version


Published Open-Access



Biomarkers/analysis, cardiovascular diseases/epidemiology/ethnology/prevention & control, Hispanic Americans/ethnology, models, statistical, phospholipases A2, predictive value of tests, pulse-wave analysis/methods, risk assessment, risk factors, socioeconomic factors


Vascular markers such as pulse-wave velocity and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) might improve the prediction of incident cardiovascular disease beyond traditional risk factors. These vascular markers have not been well characterized in minority populations and might be more useful than inflammatory biomarkers. We conducted a prospective, longitudinal cohort study among hypertensive patients in an urban safety-net hospital. We evaluated inflammatory biomarkers, arterial pulse-wave velocity, and carotid intima-media thickness at baseline, 1 year, and 2 years. The primary outcome variable was CIMT. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate associations between CIMT and predictive variables accounting for the correlation of multiple measurements within subjects over time. For our secondary outcome, we used administrative and National Death Index data to determine all-cause death, and univariate relationships were evaluated.

Among 175 subjects, 117 were Latino (67%) and 117 were female (67%). Pulse-wave velocity and CIMT regressed over time (both P <0.001) and were highly correlated (P <0.001). Only pulse-wave velocity (P=0.002) and total cholesterol (P=0.03) were associated with CIMT in time-varying covariate analysis. At a median follow-up period of 80 months, 17 of 175 subjects had died (10%). Higher baseline CIMT and pulse-wave velocity were associated with increased mortality rates (both P <0.01). No serum inflammatory marker was significantly correlated with longitudinal changes in CIMT or death. In conclusion, both arterial stiffness and preclinical carotid atherosclerosis were associated with increased mortality rates and might be useful risk-stratification markers among this minority population.



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