Date of Graduation


Document Type

Dissertation (PhD)

Program Affiliation

Cancer Biology

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Advisor/Committee Chair

Mien-Chie Hung, Ph.D

Committee Member

Dihua Yu, M.D., Ph.D.

Committee Member

Elsa R. Flores, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Gabriel Lopez-Berestein, M.D.

Committee Member

Zhen Fan, M.D.


Antiangiogenesis is a promising anti-tumor strategy through inhibition tumor vascularformation to suppress tumor growth. Targeting specific VEGF/R has been showntherapeutic benefits in many cancer types and become a first approvedantiangiogenic modalities by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in United States.However, interruption of homeostasis in normal tissues that is likely due to theinhibition of VEGF/R signaling pathway induces unfavorable side effects. Moreover,cytostatic nature of antiangiogenic drugs frequently causes less tumor cell specifickilling activity, and cancer cells escaped from cell death induced by these drugseven gain more malignant phenotypes, resulting in tumor invasion and metastasis.To overcome these issues, we developed a novel anti-tumor therapeutic EndoCDfusion protein which linked endostatin (Endo) to cytosine deaminase-uracilvphosphoribosyl transferase (CD). Endo targets unique tumor endothelial cells toprovide tumor-specific antiangiogenesis activity and also carries CD to the localtumor area, where it serves nontoxic prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) enzymaticconversion reaction to anti-metabolite chemotherapy drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Wedemonstrated that 5-FU concentration was highly increased in tumor sites, resultingin high level of endothelial cells and tumor cells cytotoxic efficacy. Furthermore,EndoCD/5-FC therapy decreased tumor growth and colorectal liver metastasisincident compared with bevacizumab/5-FU treatment in human breast and colorectalliver metastasis orthotropic animal models. In cardiotoxicity safety profile,EndoCD/5-FC is a contrast to bevacizumab/5-FU; lower risk of cardiotoxicityinduction or heart function failure was found in EndoCD/5-FC treatment thanbevacizumab/5-FU does in mice. EndoCD/5-FC showed more potent therapeuticefficacy with high safety profile and provided stronger tumor invasion or metastasisinhibition than antiangiogenic drugs. Together, EndoCD fusion protein with 5-FCshowed dual tumor targeting activities including antiangiogenesis and tumor localchemotherapy, and it could serve as an alternative option for antiangiogenic therapy.


Antiangiogenesis, Targeting Chemotherapy, Endostatin, Cytosine Deaminase, Uracil PhosphoribosylTransferase, bevacizumab, cardiotoxicity, colorectal liver metastasis

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