Publication Date



Journal of Dental Sciences


BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: It has been known that genetic factors influence orthodontic tooth movement, however, scientific research on humans is lacking. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate dynamic changes to the genetic profile in human periodontal ligament (PDL) tissue and cytokine release in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) during the first 28 days of orthodontic treatment.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen teeth from three patients were recruited. Full-mouth fixed appliances with extraction of four premolars and one maxillary third molar was planned for orthodontic treatment. GCF collection and tooth extraction were performed following force application for 0, 1, 3, 7, and 28 days. GCF was analyzed using multiplex immunoassay for 27 cytokines. PDL tissue was collected after extraction and submitted for RNA exome-sequencing using Illumina sequencing platform. Further analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs), gene ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, and heatmaps were conducted.

RESULTS: GCF cytokine levels varied among three patients; some patients exhibited a peak cytokine level on Day 0 whereas others did so on Days 1-3. In RNA exome sequencing data, GO and KEGG analyses showed that genes associated with sensory receptors were upregulated on Day 1, genes involved in bone remodeling were upregulated on Days 3 and 28, and genes related to osteoclast differentiation were upregulated on Day 7.

CONCLUSION: RNA sequencing data demonstrate that the specific types of genes are expressed at different time points, whereas the data on cytokine changes show a large variation in concentration levels and dynamic change patterns among the patients.


Cytokines, Orthodontic tooth movement, Periodontal ligament, RNA sequencing



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.