Publication Date





Basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most common cancer in humans, is a malignant neoplasm of cells derived from the basal layer of the epidermis. Tumor characteristics such as histologic subtype, primary versus recurrent tumor, anatomic location, size, and patient attributes determine the risk level and acceptable treatment options. Surgical options offer histologic confirmation of tumor clearance. Standard excision provides post-treatment histologic assessment, while Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) provides complete margin assessment intraoperatively. Additional treatment options may be employed in the correct clinical context. Small and low-risk BCCs, broad field cancerization, locally-advanced disease, metastatic disease, cosmetic concerns, or morbidity with surgical approaches raise consideration of other treatment modalities. We review herein a range of treatment approaches and advances in treatments for BCC, including standard excision, MMS, electrodesiccation and curettage, ablative laser treatment, radiation therapy, targeted molecular therapies, topical therapies, field therapies, immunotherapy, and experimental therapies.


Gorlin syndrome, Mohs surgery, basal cell carcinoma, basal cell nevus syndrome, cemiplimab, immunotherapy, sonidegib, vismodegib



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.