Publication Date



Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance


BACKGROUND: Advances in four-dimensional flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (4D flow CMR) have allowed quantification of left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) blood flow. We aimed to (1) investigate age and sex differences of 4D flow CMR-derived LV and RV relative flow components and kinetic energy (KE) parameters indexed to end-diastolic volume (KEi

METHODS: We performed 4D flow analysis in 163 healthy participants (42% female; mean age 43 ± 13 years) of a prospective registry study (NCT03217240) who were free of cardiovascular diseases. Relative flow components (direct flow, retained inflow, delayed ejection flow, residual volume) and multiple phasic KEi

RESULTS: Compared with men, women had lower median LV and RV residual volume, and LV peak and average systolic KEi

CONCLUSION: These data using state-of-the-art 4D flow CMR show that biventricular flow components and kinetic energy parameters vary significantly by age and sex. Age and sex trends should be considered in the interpretation of quantitative measures of biventricular flow. Clinical trial registration https://www.

CLINICALTRIALS: gov . Unique identifier: NCT03217240.


4D flow, Flow components, Hemodynamics, Kinetic energy, Reference values



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