Publication Date



Journal of Functional Biomaterials


The chitin and chitosan biopolymers are extremely valuable because of their numerous industrial and pharmacological uses. Chitin and chitosan were extracted from the exoskeleton of Periplaneta americana (cockroaches) and termites using various acid and alkali techniques. The extraction process involves an initial demineralization step, during which integument dry powder was subjected to 500 mL (2.07 mol/L) of concentrated HCl at 100 degrees Celsius for 30 min, followed by meticulous rinsing with distilled water to restore the pH to its baseline. Deproteinization was conducted at 80 degrees Celsius using 500 mL (1 mol/L) of NaOH solution, which was repeated for 24 h. A total of 250 mL (0.06 mol/L) of NaOH was added at 100 degrees Celsius for 4 h to obtain chitosan, followed by extensive washing and subsequent drying. FTIR analysis was used to identify the functional groups in Periplaneta americana and termites. The crystallinity of these biopolymers, which have a face-centered cubic structure, was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. This study assessed the analgesic properties of chitin and chitosan via an acetic-acid-induced writhing test in mice, revealing a significant reduction in writhing behavior following the chitin and chitosan extract. Notably, chitin exhibits the highest degree of analgesic activity compared to chitosan. Both chitin and chitosan show anti-inflammatory effects, with chitosan absorbing proton ions at sites of inflammation, while chitin effectively inhibits ear edema and elicits an analgesic response in mice. Furthermore, the present study revealed antipyretic activity, with termite chitin demonstrating the most significant effect at a concentration of 500 µL/mL, followed by chitosan and chitin at 100 µL/mL. These findings indicate the potential of using chitin and chitosan derived from termites and Periplaneta americana as natural anti-inflammatory compounds, implying prospective uses in anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic capabilities.


Periplaneta americana, biopolymers, chitosan, chitin, antipyretic, demineralization, deproteinization



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