Publication Date



Journal of Clinical Medicine


Background: Chronic wounds present a significant clinical, social, and economic challenge. This study aimed to objectify the risk factors of healing outcomes and the duration of chronic wounds from various etiologies. Methods: Patients treated for non-healing wounds at the surgical outpatient clinic of the Olomouc Military Hospital were involved. Data from patients treated between 8/2021 and 9/2023 were selected. Patients were mostly treated as outpatients, with microbiological follow-up indicated in cases of advanced signs of inflammation. Results: There were 149 patients who met our selection criteria (the mean age was 64.4 years). Predominant causes of wounds involved diabetes (30.9%), post-trauma (25.5%), pressure ulcers (14.8%), surgical site infections (14.8%), and vascular ulcers (14.1%). Patient outcomes included wound resolution in 77.2% of patients (with a mean healing time of 110.9 days), amputation in 14.1%, and wound-related death in 8.7% of patients. Non-healing cases (amputation/death) were predicted by several local factors including an initial depth greater than 1 cm, wound secretion, inflammatory base, and a maximum wound size. Systemic factors included most strongly clinically manifested atherosclerosis and its risk factors. Of the 110 swabs performed, 103 identified at least 1 bacterial genus. The dominant risk factor for a prolonged healing duration was bacterial infection. Wounds contaminated by Proteus or Pseudomonas had prolonged healing times of 87 days (p = 0.02) and 72 days (p = 0.045), respectively. Conclusions: The early identification of local and systemic risk factors contributes to the successful resolution of chronic wounds and a reduced duration of healing.


risk factor, healing process, wound, diabetic ulcer, pressure ulcer, vascular ulcer



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