Mutation analysis of the PVRL1 gene in caucasians with nonsyndromic cleft lip/palate.
Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (nsCL/P, MIM 119530) is perhaps the most common major birth defect. Homozygous PVRL1 loss-of-function mutations result in an autosomal recessive CL/P syndrome, CLPED1, and a PVRL1 nonsense mutation is associated with sporadic nsCL/P in Northern Venezuela. To address the more general role of PVRL1 variation in risk of nsCL/P, we carried out mutation analysis of PVRL1 in North American and Australian nsCL/P cases and population-matched controls. We identified a total of 15 variants, 5 of which were seen in both populations and 1 of which, an in-frame insertion at Glu442, was more frequent in patients than in controls in both populations, though the difference was not statistically significant. Another variant, which is specific to the PVRL1 beta (HIgR) isoform, S447L, was marginally associated with nsCL/P in North American Caucasian patients, but not in Australian patients, and overall variants that affect the beta-isoform were significantly more frequent among North American patients. One Australian patient had a splice junction mutation of PVRL1. Our results suggest that PVRL1 may play a minor role in susceptibility to the occurrence of nsCL/P in some Caucasian populations, and that variation involving the beta (HIgR) isoform might have particular importance for risk of orofacial clefts. Nevertheless, these results underscore the need for studies that involve very large numbers when assessing the possible role of rare variants in risk of complex traits such as nsCL/P.
Base Sequence, Case-Control Studies, Cell Adhesion Molecules, Cleft Lip, Cleft Palate, DNA Primers, European Continental Ancestry Group, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Humans, Mutation, Polymerase Chain Reaction, RNA Splicing