Publication Date



The Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology


BACKGROUND: Methylene blue (MB) is used endoscopically to demarcate tumors and as a photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy (PDT). However, there are few in vivo studies about its toxicity in healthy stomach tissue. We performed sequential in vitro and in vivo analyses of MB-induced phototoxicity.

METHODS: We performed in vitro experiments using the AGS human gastric cancer cell line treated with light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation (3.6 J/cm

RESULTS: In vitro, increased concentrations of MB led to higher TUNEL scores. However, cell viability was significantly lower after MB plus LED irradiation than after treatment with MB alone (P < 0.001). In vivo, the TUNEL score was highest immediately after treatment with 0.1% or 0.5% MB plus light irradiation, and the score was significantly higher in the LED illumination plus MB group than in the control group (P < 0.05). The elevated TUNEL score was maintained for 3 days in the MB plus light irradiation group but returned to normal levels on day 10.

CONCLUSIONS: : Endoscopic light application with MB 0.5% concentration to the stomach may be regarded as a safe procedure despite some DNA injuries in the early period.


Chromoendoscopy; cytotoxicity; gastric mucosa; methylene blue; photodynamic therapy



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.