Publication Date



Future Medicinal Chemistry


Diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration are common retinal diseases with shared pathophysiology, including oxidative stress-induced inflammation. Cellular mechanisms responsible for converting oxidative stress into retinal damage are ill-defined but have begun to clarify. One common outcome of retinal oxidative stress is mitochondrial damage and subsequent release of mitochondrial DNA into the cytosol. This leads to activation of the cGAS-STING pathway, resulting in interferon release and disease-amplifying inflammation. This review summarizes the evolving link between aberrant cGAS-STING signaling and inflammation in common retinal diseases and provides prospective for targeting this system in diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. Further defining the roles of this system in the retina is expected to reveal new disease pathology and novel therapeutic approaches.


age-related macular degeneration, cGAS–STING, cytokine release, diabetic retinopathy, inflammasome activation, inflammation, innate immune response, oxidative stress, retinal damage



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