Publication Date

10-1-2023

Journal

Molecular Psychiatry

Abstract

While our understanding of the molecular biology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has grown, the etiology of the disease, especially the involvement of peripheral infection, remains a challenge. In this study, we hypothesize that peripheral infection represents a risk factor for AD pathology. To test our hypothesis, APP/PS1 mice underwent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) surgery to develop a polymicrobial infection or non-CLP surgery. Mice were euthanized at 3, 30, and 120 days after surgery to evaluate the inflammatory mediators, glial cell markers, amyloid burden, gut microbiome, gut morphology, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) levels. The novel object recognition (NOR) task was performed 30 and 120 days after the surgery, and sepsis accelerated the cognitive decline in APP/PS1 mice at both time points. At 120 days, the insoluble Aβ increased in the sepsis group, and sepsis modulated the cytokines/chemokines, decreasing the cytokines associated with brain homeostasis IL-10 and IL-13 and increasing the eotaxin known to influence cognitive function. At 120 days, we found an increased density of IBA-1-positive microglia in the vicinity of Aβ dense-core plaques, compared with the control group confirming the predictable clustering of reactive glia around dense-core plaques within 15 μm near Aβ deposits in the brain. In the gut, sepsis negatively modulated the α- and β-diversity indices evaluated by 16S rRNA sequencing, decreased the levels of SCFAs, and significantly affected ileum and colon morphology in CLP mice. Our data suggest that sepsis-induced peripheral infection accelerates cognitive decline and AD pathology in the AD mouse model.

Keywords

Mice, Animals, Alzheimer Disease, Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor, Neuroinflammatory Diseases, Gastrointestinal Microbiome, RNA, Ribosomal, 16S, Mice, Transgenic, Amyloid, Cytokines, Plaque, Amyloid, Sepsis, Amyloid beta-Peptides, Disease Models, Animal

Included in

Neurology Commons

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