Publication Date

10-3-2022

Journal

Scientific Reports

Abstract

A large portion of stroke disparities remains unexplained, even after adjusting for demographic, comorbidity, and health care access variables. There is a critical need to close this knowledge gap by investigating novel factors that may contribute to stroke disparities. Allostatic load (AL) is the lifetime adverse physiologic impact of needing to adjust to socially structured stressors such as racism. AL has been shown to increase health vulnerability and worsen outcomes in marginalized populations. We sought to assess the differential impact of AL on cognitive outcomes post intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) across race-ethnicity. The Intracerebral Hemorrhage Outcomes Project (ICHOP) prospectively collected data from patients presenting to Columbia Medical Center with ICH from 3/2009 to 5/2016. Data included demographics, stroke scores, labs, complications, neuroimaging, medical history, and discharge data. Five markers of AL (HbA1c, WBC, SBP, HR, ALB) were obtained. An AL score was generated by summing the elements in each patient that fell outside normal ranges, with AL score ranging 0–5. A linear regression model, adjusted for stroke severity and ICH volumes, was used to evaluate the relationship between AL and Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-m) at discharge, stratified by race-ethnicity. Among 248 white, 195 black, and 261 Hispanic ICH patients, neither mean AL nor mean TICS differed by race/ethnicity (p = 0.51, p = 0.79 respectively). In the overall cohort AL did not predict TICS at discharge (Beta -1.0, SE 1.1, p = 0.353). In Whites (beta 1.18, SE 2.5, p = 0.646) and Hispanics (beta -0.95, SE 1.6, p = 0.552) AL was not associated with TICS at discharge. In Black patients, higher AL was associated with a decrease in TICS at discharge (beta -3.2, SE 1.5, p = 0.049). AL is an important determinant of post ICH outcomes for certain minority populations. AL may explain some of the unexplained health disparities in stroke populations.

Keywords

Allostasis, Cerebral Hemorrhage, Cognition, Glycated Hemoglobin, Healthcare Disparities, Humans, Stroke, Neuroscience, Biomarkers, Diseases, Health care, Medical research, Neurology, Risk factors

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