Khalid E Khalid

Publication Date






The high prevalence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) and rising resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics, which is a global therapeutic concern, are caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli) extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) producers. It is unclear how E. coli that produces ESBLs spreads throughout Gezira state, Sudan. The study aimed to evaluate the dissemination of class A and class D resistance genes among E. coli and to recognize the antibacterial activity of the locally used cephalosporins and carbapenems.


One hundred and fifteen isolates of uropathogenic E. coli were collected from patients who attended a tertiary hospital. The isolates were identified using colony morphology, gram staining, and biochemical tests and checked for 16S rRNA using PCR. The multidrug-resistant (MDR) testing was conducted using agar disk diffusion. Finally, the class A and D resistance genes were analyzed by multiplex PCR.


The study enrolled 200 patients with UTIs. E. coli isolates were found in 115 (57.5%) urine specimens examined, and 60 (52.2%) of them produced resistance to most locally used antibiotics. The antibiotic resistance pattern was higher against cefepime (100%), ceftizoxime (90%), cefuroxime (81.7%), and ceftriaxone (81.7%) and had lower activity against meropenem (13.3%). The genotypic characterization of class A cephalosporinases was 85% for blaCTX-M, 70% for blaSHV, and 33.3% for blaTEM, while for class D carbapenemases, it was 10% for both blaOXA-23 and blaOXA-51.


The considerable antibiotic resistance to the cephalosporins and meropenem and the increased predominance of the blaCTX-M and blaSHV genes are serious concerns for the health authorities. Meropenem could still be used as the drug of choice for ESBL-producing E. coli.


multiplex pcr, urinary tract infections, esbl, multi-drug resistance, carbapenemases, cephalosporinases, escherichia coli

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