Publication Date



International Journal of Molecular Sciences


Aging is associated with inflammation and oxidative stress in the lacrimal gland (LG). We investigated if heterochronic parabiosis of mice could modulate age-related LG alterations. In both males and females, there were significant increases in total immune infiltration in isochronic aged LGs compared to that in isochronic young LGs. Male heterochronic young LGs were significantly more infiltrated compared to male isochronic young LGs. While both females and males had significant increases in inflammatory and B-cell-related transcripts in isochronic and heterochronic aged LGs compared to levels isochronic and heterochronic young LGs, females had a greater fold expression of some of these transcripts than males. Through flow cytometry, specific subsets of B cells were increased in the male heterochronic aged LGs compared to those in male isochronic aged LGs. Our results indicate that serum soluble factors from young mice were not enough to reverse inflammation and infiltrating immune cells in aged tissues and that there were specific sex-related differences in parabiosis treatment. This suggests that age-related changes in the LG microenvironment/architecture participate in perpetuating inflammation, which is not reversible by exposure to youthful systemic factors. In contrast, male young heterochronic LGs were significantly worse than their isochronic counterparts, suggesting that aged soluble factors can enhance inflammation in the young host. Therapies that aim at improving cellular health may have a stronger impact on improving inflammation and cellular inflammation in LGs than parabiosis.


heterochronic parabiosis, aging, inflammation, inflammaging, lacrimal gland, dacryoadenitis

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