Publication Date

1-1-2023

Journal

Frontiers in Neurology

Abstract

Background/objective

Uncontrolled systemic inflammation after non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is associated with worse outcomes. Changes in the peripheral eosinophil count have been linked to worse clinical outcomes after ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, and traumatic brain injury. We aimed to investigate the association of eosinophil counts with clinical outcomes after SAH.

Methods

This retrospective observational study included patients with SAH admitted from January 2009 to July 2016. Variables included demographics, modified Fisher scale (mFS), Hunt–Hess Scale (HHS), global cerebral edema (GCE), and the presence of any infection. Peripheral eosinophil counts were examined as part of routine clinical care on admission and daily for 10 days after aneurysmal rupture. Outcome measures included dichotomized discharge mortality, modified Ranked Scale (mRS) score, delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), vasospasm, and need for ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS). Statistical tests included the chi-square test, Student's t-test, and multivariable logistic regression (MLR) model.

Results

A total of 451 patients were included. The median age was 54 (IQR 45, 63) years, and 295 (65.4%) were female patients. On admission, 95 patients (21.1%) had a high HHS (>4), and 54 (12.0%) had GCE. A total of 110 (24.4%) patients had angiographic vasospasm, 88 (19.5%) developed DCI, 126 (27.9%) had an infection during hospitalization, and 56 (12.4%) required VPS. Eosinophil counts increased and peaked on days 8–10. Higher eosinophil counts on days 3–5 and day 8 were seen in patients with GCE (p < 0.05). Higher eosinophil counts on days 7–9 (p < 0.05) occurred in patients with poor discharge functional outcomes. In multivariable logistic regression models, higher day 8 eosinophil count was independently associated with worse discharge mRS (OR 6.72 [95% CI 1.27, 40.4], p = 0.03).

Conclusion

This study demonstrated that a delayed increase in eosinophils after SAH occurs and may contribute to functional outcomes. The mechanism of this effect and the relationship with SAH pathophysiology merit further investigation.

Keywords

eosinophils, subarachnoid hemorrhage, inflammation, outcomes, brain injury

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Neurology Commons

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