Publication Date



The Lancet Regional Health – Western Pacific



In Asia, diabetes-associated death due to cardiorenal diseases were 2–3 times higher in women than men which might be due to gender disparity in quality of care and health habits.


Adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) from 11 Asian countries/areas were assessed using the same protocol (2007–2015). We compared treatment target attainment (HbA1c < 7%, blood pressure [BP] < 130/80 mmHg, risk-based LDL-cholesterol, lack of central obesity [waist circumference <90 cm in men or <80 cm in women), use of cardiorenal-protective drugs (renin-angiotensin system [RAS] inhibitors, statins), and self-reported health habits including self-monitoring blood glucose (SMBG) by gender. Analyses were stratified by countries/areas, age of natural menopause (<50 vs. ≥50 years), and comorbidities (atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease [ASCVD], heart failure, kidney impairment [eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2]).


Among 106,376 patients (53.2% men; median (interquartile range) diabetes duration: 6.0 (2.0–12.0) years; mean ± SD HbA1c 8.0 ± 1.9%; 27% insulin-treated), women were older and less likely to receive college education than men (28.9% vs. 48.8%). Women were less likely to smoke/drink alcohol and were physically less active than men. Women had lower BP (<130/80 mmHg: 29.4% vs. 25.7%), less general obesity (54.8% vs. 57.8%) but more central obesity than men (77.5% vs. 57.3%). Women were less likely to have ASCVD (12.8% vs. 17.0%) or heart failure (1.3% vs. 2.3%), but more likely to have kidney impairment (22.3% vs. 17.6%) and any-site cancer than men (2.5% vs. 1.6%). In most countries/areas, more men attained HbA1c <7% and risk-based LDL-cholesterol level than women. After adjusting for potential confounders including countries and centres, men had 1.63 odds ratio (95% CI 1.51, 1.74) of attaining ≥3 treatment targets than women.


Asian women with T2D had worse quality of care than men especially in middle-income countries/areas, calling for targeted implementation programs to close these care gaps.


Disparity, Care gaps, Inequality, Ethnicity, Type 2 diabetes, Treatment targets, Cardiovascular risk factors, Comorbidity, Self-management



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