Publication Date



International Journal of Molecular Sciences


Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common arrhythmia in clinical practice, is associated with an increase in mortality and morbidity due to its high potential to cause stroke and systemic thromboembolism. Inflammatory mechanisms may play a role in the pathogenesis of AF and its maintenance. We aimed to evaluate a range of inflammatory markers as potentially involved in the pathophysiology of individuals with nonvalvular AF (NVAF). A total of 105 subjects were enrolled and divided into two groups: patients with NVAF (n = 55, mean age 72 ± 8 years) and a control group of individuals in sinus rhythm (n = 50, mean age 71 ± 8 years). Inflammatory-related mediators were quantified in plasma samples by using Cytometric Bead Array and Multiplex immunoassay. Subjects with NVAF presented significantly elevated values of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interferon-gamma, growth differentiation factor-15, myeloperoxidase, as well as IL-4, interferon-gamma-induced protein (IP-10), monokine induced by interferon-gamma, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, and serum amyloid A in comparison with controls. However, after multivariate regression analysis adjusting for confounding factors, only IL-6, IL-10, TNF, and IP-10 remained significantly associated with AF. We provided a basis for the study of inflammatory markers whose association with AF has not been addressed before, such as IP-10, in addition to supporting evidence about molecules that had previously been associated with the disease. We expect to contribute to the discovery of markers that can be implemented in clinical practice hereafter.


atrial fibrillation, inflammation, biomarkers, inflammatory mediators, arrhythmia

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