Publication Date



Antiviral Research


Clade highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) viruses that are responsible for devastating outbreaks in birds and mammals pose a potential threat to public health. Here, we evaluated their susceptibility to influenza antivirals. Of 1,015 sequences of HPAI A(H5N1) viruses collected in the United States during 2022, eight viruses (∼0.8%) had a molecular marker of drug resistance to an FDA-approved antiviral: three adamantane-resistant (M2-V27A), four oseltamivir-resistant (NA-H275Y), and one baloxavir-resistant (PA-I38T). Additionally, 31 viruses contained mutations that may reduce susceptibility to inhibitors of neuraminidase (NA) (n = 20) or cap-dependent endonuclease (CEN) (n = 11). A panel of 22 representative viruses was tested phenotypically. Overall, clade A(H5N1) viruses lacking recognized resistance mutations were susceptible to FDA-approved antivirals. Oseltamivir was least potent at inhibiting NA activity, while the investigational NA inhibitor AV5080 was most potent, including against NA mutants. A novel NA substitution T438N conferred 12-fold reduced inhibition by zanamivir, and in combination with the known marker N295S, synergistically affected susceptibility to all five NA inhibitors. In cell culture-based assays HINT and IRINA, the PA-I38T virus displayed 75- to 108-fold and 37- to 78-fold reduced susceptibility to CEN inhibitors, baloxavir and the investigational AV5116, respectively. Viruses with PA-I38M or PA-A37T showed 5- to 10-fold reduced susceptibilities. As HPAI A(H5N1) viruses continue to circulate and evolve, close monitoring of drug susceptibility is needed for risk assessment and to inform decisions regarding antiviral stockpiling.


Neuraminidase inhibitors, CEN inhibitor, Baloxavir, AV5080, Antiviral resistance



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.