Publication Date



Poultry Science


Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are respiratory illness syndromes that have recently been detected in vaccinated flocks and are causing major financial losses in the chicken farming industry. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of Valley Vac H5Plus NDVg7 vaccine in protecting chickens against the H5N8 and NDV strains that have recently been circulating in comparison with the efficacy of the commercially available bivalent H5+ND7 vaccine. In contrast to the H5+ND7 vaccine, which was made of genetically distinct H5N8/2018 clade genotype group (G5), H9N2/2016, H5N1/2017, and genetically comparable NDV genotype VII 1.1/2019 of the recently circulating challenge viruses, the Valley Vac H5Plus NDVg7 vaccine consisted of the recently isolated (RG HPAI H5N1 AIV/2015 Clade, RG HPAIV H5N8/2020 Clade genotype group 6 (G6), and NDV genotype VII 1.1/2012) which were genetically similar to challenged strains. To determine the effectiveness of the Valley Vac H5Plus NDVg7 vaccine, a total of 70-day-old commercial chicks were divided into 7 groups of 10 birds each. Groups (G1 and G4) received Valley Vac H5Plus NDVg7 vaccine. Groups (G2 and G5) groups received commercial H5+ND7 vaccine. While groups (G3 and G6) were kept nonvaccinated, and group (G7) was kept as a nonchallenged and nonvaccinated. After 3-wk post vaccination (WPV), groups G1, G2, and G3 were challenged with A/Duck/ Egypt/SMG4/2019(H5N8) genotype G6. On the other hand, groups G4, G5, G6 were challenged with NDV/EGYPT/18629F/2018 genotype VII 1.1 with an intranasal injection of 0.1 mL. Antibody titer was calculated at the first 3 wk after vaccination, and the viral shedding titer was calculated at 3-, 5-, and 7-days post challenge. Mortality and morbidity rates were monitored daily during the experiment, and for the first 10 d after the challenge, to provide an estimate of the protection rate. The results showed that a single dosage of 0.5 mL per bird of Valley Vac H5Plus NDVg7 vaccine provides 80% protection against both H5N8 and NDV, compared to the bivalent H5+ND7 vaccine, which provided 20 and 80% protection against H5N8 and NDV, respectively. In addition, 0.5 mL per bird of Valley Vac H5Plus NDVg7 vaccine produced a greater immune response against both viruses than commercial vaccination at 1 to 3 WPV with a significant difference at 1 WPV for H5N8 and a comparatively higher immune response for NDV. Furthermore, it reduced virus shedding of H5N8 on the third, fifth, seventh, and tenth days lower than H5+ND7 vaccine with a significant difference on the third day for H5N8 and relatively lower than bivalent H5+ND7 vaccine for NDV with a significant difference on the fifth day. The Valley vaccinated group demonstrated more tissue intactness compared to the commercially vaccinated group against the H5N8 challenge, however the bivalent commercially vaccinated group showed the similar level of tissue integrity against NDV. In conclusion, Valley Vac H5Plus NDVg7 that contains the genetically similar strain to recently circulating challenged virus (H5N8 genotype G6) provided better protection with greater immune response and decreased the amount of virus shed against H5N8 genotype G6 and showed less histopathological alteration than the commercial bivalent H5+ND7 vaccine that contain genetically distinct (H5N8 genotype G5). However the Valley Vac H5Plus NDVg7 provided the same protection with relatively high immune response and relatively decreased the amount of virus shed and showed equal tissue integrity than the commercial bivalent H5+ND7 vaccine against NDV genotype VII 1.1 that contain the same genotype of NDV genotype VII 1.1.


antibody titers, bivalent vaccines, histopathological studies, poultry industry, respiratory diseases


PMID: 37634266



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