Publication Date



Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy


HPTN 083 demonstrated that injectable cabotegravir (CAB) was superior to oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-emtricitabine (TDF-FTC) for HIV prevention in cisgender men and transgender women who have sex with men. We previously analyzed 58 infections in the blinded phase of HPTN 083 (16 in the CAB arm and 42 in the TDF-FTC arm). This report describes 52 additional infections that occurred up to 1 year after study unblinding (18 in the CAB arm and 34 in the TDF-FTC arm). Retrospective testing included HIV testing, viral load testing, quantification of study drug concentrations, and drug resistance testing. The new CAB arm infections included 7 with CAB administration within 6 months of the first HIV-positive visit (2 with on-time injections, 3 with ≥1 delayed injection, and 2 who restarted CAB) and 11 with no recent CAB administration. Three cases had integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) resistance (2 with on-time injections and 1 who restarted CAB). Among 34 CAB infections analyzed to date, diagnosis delays and INSTI resistance were significantly more common in infections with CAB administration within 6 months of the first HIV-positive visit. This report further characterizes HIV infections in persons receiving CAB preexposure prophylaxis and helps define the impact of CAB on the detection of infection and the emergence of INSTI resistance.


Male, Humans, Female, HIV Infections, Anti-HIV Agents, Transgender Persons, Retrospective Studies, Tenofovir, Emtricitabine, Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis



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