Publication Date





Thoracic aortic aneurysms involving the root and/or the ascending aorta enlarge over time until an acute tear in the intimal layer leads to a highly fatal condition, an acute aortic dissection (AAD). These Stanford type A AADs, in which the tear occurs above the sinotubular junction, leading to the formation of a false lumen in the aortic wall that may extend to the arch and thoracoabdominal aorta. Type B AADs originate in the descending thoracic aorta just distal to the left subclavian artery. Genetic variants and various environmental conditions that disrupt the aortic wall integrity have been identified that increase the risk for thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAD). In this review, we discuss the predominant TAD-associated risk factors, focusing primarily on the non-genetic factors, and discuss the underlying mechanisms leading to TAD.


Humans, Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic, Aortic Dissection, Aorta, Risk Factors



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.