Publication Date



Frontiers in Public Health


BACKGROUND: The burden of depression symptoms has increased among individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 during COVID-19 pandemic. However, the prevalence and associated factors of depressive symptoms among individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 remain uncertain after optimizing the COVID-19 response in China.

METHODS: An online cross-sectional survey was conducted among the public from January 6 to 30, 2023, using a convenience sampling method. Sociodemographic and COVID-19 pandemic-related factors were collected. The depression symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Logistic regression analysis was performed to explore the associated factors with depressive symptoms.

RESULTS: A total of 2,726 participants completed the survey. The prevalence of depression symptoms was 35.3%. About 58% of the participants reported experiencing insufficient drug supply. More than 40% of participants reported that they had missed healthcare appointments or delayed treatment. One-third of participants responded experiencing a shortage of healthcare staff and a long waiting time during medical treatment. Logistic regression analysis revealed several factors that were associated with depression symptoms, including sleep difficulties (OR, 2.84; 95% CI, 2.34-3.44), chronic diseases (OR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.64-2.82), inpatient treatment for COVID-19 (OR, 3.24; 95% CI, 2.19-4.77), with COVID-19 symptoms more than 13 days (OR, 1.30, 95% CI 1.04-1.63), re-infection with SARS-CoV-2 (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.07-2.15), and the increased in demand for healthcare services (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.08-1.61).

CONCLUSION: This study reveals a moderate prevalence of depression symptoms among individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2. The findings underscore the importance of continued focus on depressive symptoms among vulnerable individuals, including those with sleeping difficulties, chronic diseases, and inpatient treatment for COVID-19. It is necessary to provide mental health services and psychological interventions for these vulnerable groups during the COVID-19 epidemic.


Humans, COVID-19, Self Report, SARS-CoV-2, Depression, Cross-Sectional Studies, Pandemics, Prevalence, China, Chronic Disease



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