Min Ji Kwak

Publication Date



Annals of Geriatric Medicine and Research


Delirium and frailty are prevalent geriatric syndromes and important public health issues among older adults. The prevalence of delirium among hospitalized older adults ranges from 15% to 75%, while that of frailty ranges from 12% to 24%. The exact pathophysiology of these two conditions has not been clearly identified, although several hypotheses have been proposed. However, these conditions are considered to be multifactorial in etiology and are associated with inflammation related to aging, alterations in vascular systems, genetics, and nutritional deficiency. Furthermore, clinically, they are significantly associated with frailty, which increases the risk of delirium by almost two- to three-fold among hospitalized older adults. With their multifactorial etiology and unknown pathophysiology, current evidence supports more practical multicomponent patient-centered approaches to prevent and manage delirium with frailty among hospitalized older adults. These comprehensive and organized bundled approaches can identify high-risk patients with frailty and more effectively manage their delirium.


Delirium, Frailty, Geriatric assessment



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