Publication Date



Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology


Protamines (PRM1 and PRM2) are small, arginine-rich, nuclear proteins that replace histones in the final stages of spermiogenesis, ensuring chromatin compaction and nuclear remodeling. Defects in protamination lead to increased DNA fragmentation and reduced male fertility. Since efficient sperm production requires the translocation of protamines from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, we investigated whether SPAG17, a protein crucial for intracellular protein trafficking during spermiogenesis, participates in protamine transport. Initially, we assessed the protein-protein interaction between SPAG17 and protamines using proximity ligation assays, revealing a significant interaction originating in the cytoplasm and persisting within the nucleus. Subsequently, immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry (IP/MS) assays validated this initial observation. Sperm and spermatids from


protamine, SPAG17, spermatogenesis, nucleocytoplasmic transport, spermiogenensis



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