Publication Date



Environmental Chemistry Letters


Chloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum bacterial antibiotic used against conjunctivitis, meningitis, plague, cholera, and typhoid fever. As a consequence, chloramphenicol ends up polluting the aquatic environment, wastewater treatment plants, and hospital wastewaters, thus disrupting ecosystems and inducing microbial resistance. Here, we review the occurrence, toxicity, and removal of chloramphenicol with emphasis on adsorption techniques. We present the adsorption performance of adsorbents such as biochar, activated carbon, porous carbon, metal-organic framework, composites, zeolites, minerals, molecularly imprinted polymers, and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The effect of dose, pH, temperature, initial concentration, and contact time is discussed. Adsorption is controlled by π-π interactions, donor-acceptor interactions, hydrogen bonding, and electrostatic interactions. We also discuss isotherms, kinetics, thermodynamic data, selection of eluents, desorption efficiency, and regeneration of adsorbents. Porous carbon-based adsorbents exhibit excellent adsorption capacities of 500-1240 mg g


Chloramphenicol, Occurrence, Toxicity, Adsorption techniques, Mechanisms, Mathematic models



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