Publication Date



Open Forum Infectious Diseases


Invasive fungal infections continue to increase as at-risk populations expand. The high associated morbidity and mortality with fungal diseases mandate the continued investigation of novel antifungal agents and diagnostic strategies that include surrogate biomarkers. Biologic markers of disease are useful prognostic indicators during clinical care, and their use in place of traditional survival end points may allow for more rapid conduct of clinical trials requiring fewer participants, decreased trial expense, and limited need for long-term follow-up. A number of fungal biomarkers have been developed and extensively evaluated in prospective clinical trials and small series. We examine the evidence for these surrogate biomarkers in this review and provide recommendations for clinicians and regulatory authorities.


diagnosis, fungal infections, mycology



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.