Publication Date



Rare Disease and Orphan Drugs Journal


AIM: Turner Syndrome (TS) is caused by partial or complete absence of the second sex chromosome in a phenotypic female. TS is associated with recognizable congenital anomalies and chronic health conditions. The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the health-related knowledge and insight of participants.

METHODS: In 2015, we founded the UTHealth Turner Syndrome Research Registry for longitudinal follow-up of individuals with TS. Study participants were recruited from UTHealth Houston clinics and the Turner Syndrome Society of the United States. Participants completed a questionnaire about demographics, karyotype, congenital anomalies, health history, frequency of contact with care providers, and knowledge of care providers about TS.

RESULTS: Forty percent of registry participants indicated that they did not know their karyotypes. Knowledge of karyotype, which can predict clinical outcomes in TS, markedly varied by self-reported race and ethnicity but not by age. Participants also reported significant gaps in routine medical and gynecologic care.

CONCLUSION: We identified knowledge gaps and health disparities that could benefit from improved provider and patient education.


Registry, Turner Syndrome, health disparities, questionnaire



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