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Mixed-phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL) comprises a heterogenous group of leukemias that are genetically, immunophenotypically, and clinically, diverse. Given the rarity of the disease, the diagnosis and treatment of MPAL is extremely challenging. Recent collaborative efforts have made significant progress in understanding the complex genomic landscape of MPAL. Some retrospective studies support starting ALL-type induction followed by an allogeneic stem cell transplant(allo-sct) in the first complete remission; however, due to the inherent bias of retrospective data and small case series, a prospective validation of AML- and ALL-based regimen, and the incorporation of targeted therapies based on genetics and immunophenotype are warranted. The prognosis of adults and children with MPAL varies; this justifies modulating the intensity of therapy, including the use of allo-sct as a consolidation strategy.


acute lymphoblastic leukemia-type therapy, allogeneic transplantation, ambiguous leukemia, genetic alterations, mixed-phenotype acute leukemia, targeted therapy



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