Publication Date



Orthopedic Reviews


Xiphodynia is a rare but debilitating condition that can be described as a form of pain on the xiphisternal joint or any related structures that are anchored to the xiphoid process. Although xiphodynia is a musculoskeletal pain in nature, the pain located in the anterior chest can commonly mislead physicians into pursuing other diagnoses such as cardiac diseases. This leads to a prolonged duration of pain before receiving treatment. In the attempt to alleviate pain resulting from this condition, physicians have previously utilized a range of treatment options, including conservative management, injections, or in severe cases, xiphoidectomy. In this review, we aim to give a brief overview of xiphodynia, including clinical diagnoses and current treatment modalities.

Key Summary Points

1. Xiphodynia can be described as pain radiating from an irritated xiphoid process that can travel to the chest, abdomen, throat, and arms

2. Risk factors for developing secondary xiphoidalgia include GERD, gall-bladder disease, angina pectoris, and coronary-artery disease

3. The treatment of xiphodynia can range from conservative management to injections or a xiphoidectomy

4. Further research is required to develop a standardized treatment protocol and currently the choice of treatment depends on the patient’s individual case and the degree of severity


musculoskeletal pain, xiphoid process, anterior chest pain, xiphoidalgia, xiphoidynia



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