Publication Date



Frontiers in Immunology


INTRODUCTION: Invasion of the central nervous system (CNS) is the most serious consequence of

METHODS: To further address this issue, we implanted a cranial window on the cortex of B6.129P2(Cg)-

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: We uncovered an early involvement of microglia that precedes invasion of the CNS by the parasite. We accomplished a detailed characterization of the progressive sequence of events that correlates with microglial morphological changes and microgliosis. Our findings unveiled a heterogeneous microglial response in places of initial homeostatic disruption near brain barriers and pointed out an exceptional capability of microglia to hamper parasite proliferation inside the brain. We also found early signs of inflammation in the meninges, which synchronize with the microglial response. Moreover, we observed a massive infiltration of peripheral immune cells into the parenchyma as a signature in the final disease stage. Overall, our study provides new insights into the host-pathogen immune interactions in the meningeal and parenchymal compartments of the neocortex.


Mice, Animals, Microglia, Trypanosomiasis, African, Brain, Central Nervous System, Trypanosoma brucei brucei

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