Publication Date



Critical Care


INTRODUCTION: Early data suggest use of a mixed lipid emulsion (LE) with a soybean oil reduction strategy in parenteral nutrition (PN) may improve clinical outcomes. Duke University Hospital made a full switch to a Soybean oil/MCT/Olive/Fish Oil lipid (4-OLE) from pure soybean oil-based LE (Intralipid, Baxter Inc) in May 2017. Since 4-OLE has limited evidence related to its effects on clinical outcome parameters in US hospitals, evidence for clinical benefits of switching to 4-OLE is needed. Therefore, we examined the clinical utility of a hospital-wide switch to 4-OLE and its effect on patient outcomes.

METHODS: We conducted a single-center retrospective cohort study among adult patients (> 18 years) requiring PN from 2016 to 2019. Our primary exposure was treatment period (1-year pre-4-OLE switch versus 2-year post). We used multivariable regression models to examine our primary outcomes, the association of treatment period with hospital length of stay (LOS), and secondary outcomes liver function, infections, and ICU LOS. Analyses were stratified into critically ill and entire adult cohort.

RESULTS: We identified 1200 adults hospitalized patients. 28% of PN patients (n = 341) were treated pre-4-OLE switch and 72% post-4-OLE (n = 859). In the adult cohort, 4-OLE was associated with shorter hospital LOS (IRR 0.97, 95% CI 0.95-0.99, p = 0.039). The ICU cohort included 447 subjects, of which 25% (n = 110) were treated pre-4-OLE switch and 75% (n = 337) were post-switch. ICU patients receiving 4-OLE were associated with shorter hospital LOS (IRR 0.91, 95% CI 0.87-0.93, p < 0.0001), as well as a shorter ICU LOS (IRR 0.90, 95% CI 0.82-0.99, p = 0.036). 4-OLE ICU patients also had a significantly lower delta total bilirubin (- 1.6, 95% CI - 2.8 to - 0.2, p = 0.021) and reduced urinary tract infection (UTI) rates (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.26-0.96, p = 0.038). There were no associations in AST, ALT, or total bilirubin in ICU and all adult patients.

CONCLUSION: 4-OLE was successfully implemented and reduced soybean oil LE exposure in a large academic hospital setting. The introduction of 4-OLE was associated with reduced LOS, UTI rates, and mitigated hepatic dysfunction in critically ill patients. Overall, these findings prove a switch to a soybean oil-LE sparing strategy using 4-OLE is feasible and safe and is associated with improved clinical outcomes in adult PN patients.


Humans, Soybean Oil, Fat Emulsions, Intravenous, Critical Illness, Retrospective Studies, Olive Oil, Plant Oils, Parenteral Nutrition, Fish Oils, Bilirubin, Hospitals



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