Publication Date



Journal of Clinical Medicine


Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a common sleep disorder, poses significant challenges in perioperative management due to its complexity and multifactorial nature. With a global prevalence of approximately 22.6%, OSA often remains undiagnosed, and increases the risk of cardiac and respiratory postoperative complications. Preoperative screening has become essential in many institutions to identify patients at increased risk, and experts recommend proceeding with surgery in the absence of severe symptoms, albeit with heightened postoperative monitoring. Anesthetic and sedative agents exacerbate upper airway collapsibility and depress central respiratory activity, complicating intraoperative management, especially with neuromuscular blockade use. Additionally, OSA patients are particularly prone to opioid-induced respiratory depression, given their increased sensitivity to opioids and heightened pain perception. Thus, regional anesthesia and multimodal analgesia are strongly advocated to reduce perioperative complication risks. Postoperative care for OSA patients necessitates vigilant monitoring and tailored management strategies, such as supplemental oxygen and Positive Airway Pressure therapy, to minimize cardiorespiratory complications. Health care institutions are increasingly focusing on enhanced monitoring and resource allocation for patient safety. However, the rising prevalence of OSA, heterogeneity in disease severity, and lack of evidence for the efficacy of costly perioperative measures pose challenges. The development of effective screening and monitoring algorithms, alongside reliable risk predictors, is crucial for identifying OSA patients needing extended postoperative care. This review emphasizes a multidimensional approach in managing OSA patients throughout the perioperative period, aiming to optimize patient outcomes and minimize adverse outcomes.


anesthesia, obstructive sleep apnea, perioperative evaluation, postoperative complications, pulmonary risk factors, surgery



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