Publication Date



Frontiers in Pediatrics


BACKGROUND: Meta-analysis of the impact on clinical outcome from transcatheter closure of Fontan fenestration.

METHODS: Cochrane, Embase, MEDLINE, and Open-Gray were searched. Parameters such as changes in oxygen saturation, cavo-pulmonary pressure, maximum heart rate during exercise, exercise duration, and oxygen saturation after fenestration closure were pooled and statistical analysis performed.

RESULTS: Among 922 publications, 12 retrospective observational studies were included. The included studies involved 610 patients, of which 552 patients (90.5%) had a fenestration. Of those patients, 505 patients (91.5%) underwent attempt at trans-catheter closure. When it could be estimated, the pooled overall mean age at trans-catheter fenestration closure was 6.6 ± 7.4 years, and the mean follow-up time was 34.4 ± 10.7 months. There were 32 minor (6.3%) and 20 major (4.0%) complications during or after trans-catheter Fontan fenestration closure. The forest plots demonstrate that following fenestration closure, there was a significant increase in the mean arterial oxygen saturation of 7.9% (95% CI 6.4-9.4%,

CONCLUSION: Late closure of a Fontan fenestration has the impact of improving resting oxygen saturation, exercise oxygen saturation, and a modest improvement of exercise duration. These clinical benefits, however, may be at the expense of tolerating slightly higher cavo-pulmonary mean pressures.


congenital heart defects, congenital heart surgery, fenestration, Fontan circulation, meta-analysis, systematic literature review, univentricular hearts



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