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Addictive Behaviors


INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of concurrent and simultaneous use of e-cigarette and marijuana among college students is high. Yet, the literature was mainly based on cross-sectional surveys with emphasis on the smoking route. This is the first ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study that examined the vaping route of nicotine-marijuana co-use and the associated short-term psychological effects.

METHODS: This study recruited 686 college student e-cigarette users to participate in an on-line survey and 7-day EMA. Frequent marijuana users (247) - using marijuana weekly or daily - were compared with infrequent/non-users (439) on academic performance, e-cigarette use patterns, and dependence and respiratory symptoms. EMA data from the frequent users were used to study the association between marijuana vaping and e-cigarette consumption and the short-term psychological effects of e-cigarette and marijuana use.

RESULTS: The results show that e-cigarette users who frequently used marijuana tended to have lower academic performance, be involved in higher-risk use patterns, and have higher levels of e-cigarette dependence, marijuana problems, and respiratory symptoms, compared to infrequent/non-users. Marijuana vaping was associated with a higher level of e-cigarette consumption. E-cigarette use and marijuana use were both associated with higher levels of positive affect, physiological sensation, and craving for e-cigarettes. While marijuana use was linked to a lower level of negative affect, e-cigarette use did not have a significant effect. Further, none of the interaction effects between e-cigarette and marijuana use on psychological states were significant.

CONCLUSIONS: The results showed additive effects of e-cigarette and marijuana use although the hypothesized synergistic effects were not supported.


Humans, Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems, Cannabis, Cross-Sectional Studies, Ecological Momentary Assessment, Substance-Related Disorders, Hallucinogens, Students

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