Journal Articles

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Drug and Alcohol Dependence


INTRODUCTION: Prior studies examining the impact of e-cigarette use, dependence, cessation motivation/goals, and environmental restriction on smoking cessation were based on cross-sectional or shorter-term longitudinal data with binary outcomes. There is also a critical knowledge gap in corresponding impact on vaping cessation. This study aims to fill in these gaps by investigating these factors' effects on speed of progression to smoking and vaping cessation.

METHODS: This study conducted secondary analysis of data from 13 waves of assessment of adult cigarette users in Wisconsin from October 2015 through July 2019. Cox regression was employed to examine baseline predictors' effects on speed of progression to smoking cessation (past-month abstinence) among 405 exclusive combustible cigarette users and dual users of combustible and electronic cigarettes, as well as progression to vaping cession among 178 dual users.

RESULTS: Dual use of e-cigarettes with cigarettes, lower primary dependence motives of smoking, higher secondary dependence motives of smoking, higher motivation to quit smoking, more ambitious future goals to quit smoking, and more restrictive environment for smoking all contributed to quicker progression to smoking cessation. Dual users with higher secondary dependence motives of smoking or with lower primary dependence motives of vaping progressed faster to vaping cessation.

CONCLUSIONS: The findings support that nicotine dependence is product-specific with two distinct constructs: the primary dependence motives are associated with more difficulty to quit, whereas the secondary dependence motives have the opposite effect. Dual users with strong instrumental reasons for smoking may not find e-cigarettes as an effective substitute for cigarettes.


Adult, Humans, Smoking Cessation, Vaping, Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems, Longitudinal Studies, Motivation, Cross-Sectional Studies, tobacco Products

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