Journal Articles

Publication Date



Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases


BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gestational diabetes is more common in many first-generation immigrant women in Europe and other Western countries. Less is known about second-generation immigrant women; such knowledge is needed to understand generational influences on diabetes risk. We aimed to study second-generation immigrant women regarding the presence of all types of diabetes during pregnancy.

METHODS AND RESULTS: A cohort study was conducted using the Swedish National Birth Register, the National Patient Register, and the total Population Register. We used Cox regression analysis to compute hazard ratios (HRs) and 99% confidence intervals (99% CI) for any diabetes during pregnancy and specific subtypes (gestational diabetes, pre-existing diabetes type 1, pre-existing diabetes type 2) in second-generation immigrant women compared with Swedish-born women with two Swedish-born parents while adjusting for sociodemographic factors, family history of diabetes, body mass index, smoking habits, and comorbidities. The study population included a total of 989,986 deliveries and 17,938 diabetes cases. The fully adjusted HR (with 99% CI) for any type of diabetes during pregnancy among second-generation immigrant women was 1.11 (1.05-1.18). Higher risks were found in women with parents from Africa, Asia, or Eastern Europe, as well as Denmark. A lower risk for pre-existing type 1 diabetes was found overall and for women with parents from most geographic regions.

CONCLUSION: In this national cohort study, the risk of all types of diabetes during pregnancy was increased in second-generation immigrant women. Diabetes prevention and treatment is especially important in these women both before and during pregnancy.


Pregnancy, Humans, Female, Cohort Studies, Sweden, Diabetes, Gestational, Europe, Emigrants and Immigrants, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1, Risk Factors



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