Journal Articles

Publication Date



Contemporary Clinical Trials


While extensive literature exists on barriers and strategies to increase minority participation in clinical trials, progress is limited. Few strategies were evaluated in randomized trials. We studied the impact of RECRUIT, a trust-based, cluster randomized minority recruitment trial layered on top of four traditional NIH-funded parent trials (BMT CTN, CABANA, PACES, STEADY-PD III; fifty specialty sites). RECRUIT was conducted from July 2013 through April 2017. Intervention sites implemented trust-based approaches customized to individual sites, promoting relationships between physician-investigators and minority-serving physicians and their minority patients. Control sites implemented only parent trials' recruitment procedures. Adjusting for within-site clustering, we detected no overall intervention effect, odds ratio 1.3 (95% confidence limits 0.7,2.4). Heterogeneity among parent trials may have obscured the effect. Of the four parent trials, three enrolled more minorities in intervention versus control sites. CABANA odds ratio = 4.2 (adjusted 95%CL 1.5,11.3). PACES intervention sites enrolled 63% (10/16) minorities; control sites enrolled one participant in total, a minority, yielding an incalculable odds ratio. STEADY-PD III odds ratio = 2.2 (adjusted 95%CL 0.6,8.5). BMT CTN odds ratio < 1, 0.8 (adjusted 95%CL 0.4,1.8). In conclusion, RECRUIT findings suggest the unique trust-based intervention increased minority recruitment to intervention trials in ¾ of studied trials. Physician-investigators' participation was critical to recruitment success. Lack of commitment to minority recruitment remained a barrier for some physician-investigators, especially in control sites. We recommend prospective physician investigators commit to minority recruitment activities prior to selection as site investigators and trial funding include some compensation for minority recruitment efforts. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.govNCT01911208.


Humans, Minority Groups, Patient Selection, Pilot Projects, Prospective Studies, Trust



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.