Journal Articles

Publication Date



American Journal of Public Health


Objectives. to analyze changes in occupational health inequity between 2011 and 2018 among workers in Central America. Methods. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews at the workers' homes for the 2 Central America Working Conditions Surveys (n = 12 024 in 2011 and n = 9030 in 2018). We estimated health inequity gaps by means of absolute and relative population attributable risks and the weighted Keppel index. We stratified all analyses by gender. Results. Between 2011 and 2018, the proportion of workers reporting poor self-perceived health decreased both in women (from 32% to 29%) and men (from 33% to 30%). However, the health inequity gaps remained wide in the 4 stratifiers. Measured by the Keppel index, health inequity gaps between countries increased from 22% to 39% in women and from 20% to 29% in men. Conclusions. While health improved between 2011 and 2018, health inequity gaps remained wide. Wider health inequity gaps were observed between countries than by gender, age, occupation, or education. Public Health Implications. This first benchmark of occupational health inequities in Central America could be useful when developing and evaluating the impact of public policies on work.


Adolescent, Adult, Aged, Ageism, Central America, Cross-Sectional Studies, Female, Health Status Disparities, Humans, Interviews as topic, Male, Middle Aged, Occupational Diseases, Occupational Exposure, Occupational Health, Occupations, Perception, Qualitative Research, Sex Distribution, Socioeconomic Factors, Young Adult

Included in

Public Health Commons



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.