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Cell Reports


Amino acid formula (AAF) is increasingly consumed in infants with cow's milk protein allergy; however, the long-term influences on health are less described. In this study, we established a mouse model by subjecting neonatal mice to an amino acid diet (AAD) to mimic the feeding regimen of infants on AAF. Surprisingly, AAD-fed mice exhibited dysbiotic microbiota and increased neuronal activity in both the intestine and brain, as well as gastrointestinal peristalsis disorders and depressive-like behavior. Furthermore, fecal microbiota transplantation from AAD-fed mice or AAF-fed infants to recipient mice led to elevated neuronal activations and exacerbated depressive-like behaviors compared to that from normal chow-fed mice or cow's-milk-formula-fed infants, respectively. Our findings highlight the necessity to avoid the excessive use of AAF, which may influence the neuronal development and mental health of children.


Humans, Infant, Female, Cattle, Child, Animals, Mice, Infant Formula, Amino Acids, Dysbiosis, Milk Hypersensitivity, Microbiota

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