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Translational Behavioral Medicine


School-based physical activity (PA) opportunities can help students engage in greater amounts of daily PA, meet PA guidelines, and lead to improved health and educational outcomes. However, we do not completely understand the organizational challenges to implementing these opportunities successfully. This exploratory study examined associations between school-level determinants and the implementation of school-based PA opportunities. We analyzed cross-sectional survey data from schools (n = 46) participating in the Healthy Zone School Program (HZSP) (Dallas, Texas, USA) during 2019-2020. Respondents completed an electronic survey that included measures of school-level determinants (e.g. culture, leadership, priority) and the implementation of school-based PA opportunities. We used linear regression models to examine associations between determinants and implementation outcomes (number of PA opportunities delivered, perceived overall success of each PA program/activity used). After adjusting for campus type (i.e. elementary, middle, high, K-12), student race/ethnicity, and percentage of economically disadvantaged students, no constructs were associated with the number of PA opportunities implemented. Linear regression models suggest access to knowledge and information (β = 0.39, P = .012, 95% CI = 0.24-1.44) and implementation climate (β = 0.34, P = .045, 95% CI = 0.02-1.59) were positively associated with the success of school-based PA opportunities. Our findings provide suggestive evidence that access to knowledge and information and a supportive school climate may improve the overall success of PA opportunities provided to students. Future research should examine additional school-level determinants to understand their importance to implementation and inform the development of strategies to improve schools' capacity for implementing PA opportunities successfully.


Humans, Cross-Sectional Studies, Exercise, Schools, Educational Status, Health Promotion, School Health Services

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