Journal Articles

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Circulation: Genomic and Precision Medicine


BACKGROUND: Individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), but questions remain about the underlying pathology. Identifying which CAD loci are modified by T2D in the development of subclinical atherosclerosis (coronary artery calcification [CAC], carotid intima-media thickness, or carotid plaque) may improve our understanding of the mechanisms leading to the increased CAD in T2D.

METHODS: We compared the common and rare variant associations of known CAD loci from the literature on CAC, carotid intima-media thickness, and carotid plaque in up to 29 670 participants, including up to 24 157 normoglycemic controls and 5513 T2D cases leveraging whole-genome sequencing data from the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine program. We included first-order T2D interaction terms in each model to determine whether CAD loci were modified by T2D. The genetic main and interaction effects were assessed using a joint test to determine whether a CAD variant, or gene-based rare variant set, was associated with the respective subclinical atherosclerosis measures and then further determined whether these loci had a significant interaction test.

RESULTS: Using a Bonferroni-corrected significance threshold of

CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight T2D as an important modifier of rare variant associations in CAD loci with CAC.


Humans, Coronary Artery Disease, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Carotid Intima-Media Thickness, Risk Factors, Atherosclerosis, Plaque, Atherosclerotic, Genomics



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